Digestive disorders

Digestive Disorders
[related to duodenum; sprue/malabsorption]
Normal functioning of the digestive fire (agni) or
enzymes, is responsible for proper digestion and
metabolism. The digestive fire resides in the stomach,
duodenum, small and large intestines, and directly
affects complexion, strength, weight, immune
strength, energy, vital breath, and life span. Digested
food also nourishes the seven tissues (dhátus) and
life sap (ojas). Thus, the whole body depends upon
healthy digestion. Therefore, it is advised to eat fresh,
organic, wholesome foods and liquids. This is done
with a peaceful frame of mind, according to one’s
doßha, the season, time of day, and in proper
Causes: Chronic diarrhea, ingesting foods and liquids
that dampen and deplete the digestive fire (metabolism),
fasting, eating before the last meal is digested,
eating foods that are too heavy, cold, rough,
stale, or contaminated. Other causes include misuse
of pañcha karma, excessive oleation, emaciation,
suppression of natural urges, and extreme mental
Premonitory Signs: Weakness, taking a long time to
digest foods, increasing acidity, salivation, bad taste
in the mouth, loss of taste or appetite, thirst, exhaustion,
dizziness, abdominal distention, vomiting, ear
noise, intestinal gurgling, burning, heaviness.
Development: When feces are mixed with áma and
food and are eliminated before, during or after digestion
of the food, there may be no elimination at all, or
elimination may sometimes be solid and sometimes

liquid; or elimination occurs only after feces accumulate
in the colon. This is said to be a serious illness.
This cause of diarrhea differs because of excess
elimination (with or without áma) only after digestion
of food. Four types of gastrointestinal disorders
exist: Váyu, Pitta, Kapha, and Tridoßha.
Air-Caused (Vátaja Grahaòiroga): Váyu is
increased by eating foods that are pungent, bitter, and
astringent; meals that are heavy, rough, or cold;
fasting, excess travel, suppression of urges, excessive
sexual intercourse, or extreme mental stress. This
dampens the digestive fire, making digestion difficult
or variable. Thus, food becomes fermented and many
symptoms develop.
Fire-Caused (Pittaja Grahaòiroga): Pitta is
increased in the digestive tract by excessive eating of
foods that are pungent, uncooked, sour, alkaline, and
by foods that cause heartburn. This inactivates the
gastric enzymes (like pouring hot water over a fire;
or raises agni so high it burns up nutrients).
Water-Caused (Kaphaja Grahaòiroga):
Excessive eating of foods that are very difficult to
digest, fatty, cold; eating before the last meal is
digested, and sleeping after lunch, cause Kapha
excesses in digestion.
Tridoßha Grahaòiroga: Habits of all three
doßhas create this disorder.
Symptoms: Emaciation, heat, mouth fumes,
difficult breathing, fever, fainting, headache, food
remains stagnant in the stomach, swelling of hands
and feet.
Váyu: Palate dryness, difficult breathing, ear pain,
pressure or noise; constant pain in the ribs, thighs,
groin, and neck; simultaneous vomiting and diarrhea,
desire for all tastes, increased hunger and thirst,
cutting rectal pain, post-digestive gas, eating food
brings comfort, abdominal tumor, hemorrhoids,
splenic diseases, anemia, believing one has heart
disease, difficult elimination occurs after long
intervals, liquid feces are non-oily, thin, frothy,
uncooked, cough, non-digesting of foods, headaches,
fainting, giddiness, stiff back and waist, lower back
pain, yawning, aches, thirst, fever, vomiting, griping,
Hyperacidity causes dryness of throat, mouth, thirst,
blurred vision, noises, thumping or ringing in the ears,
pain, emaciation, debility, bad taste in the mouth,
insatiable appetite for food, cough, difficult breathing.
Pitta: Food toxins, when mixed with Pitta, cause
bluish-yellow—or yellow—liquid feces, body odor,
sour belching, burning sensations in the heart and
throat areas, loss of taste, appetite, and thirst.
Kapha: Poor digestion, vomiting, loss of taste and
appetite, coated mouth, expectoration, cough, nausea,
nasal mucus, heavy throat and abdomen, belching
with bad smells and sweetness of taste, debility, loss
of sexual desire, broken, uncooked, heavy, mucusfilled
feces; large quantity of feces, weakness, and
wasting (although persons are not emaciated).
Tridoßha: Symptoms of all doßhas are present.
To restore health, the digestive fire must be
restored. Digestive illness is one of the 8 diseases
said to be difficult to heal. The other 7 are diseases of
the nervous system, urinary stones, leprosy, diabetes,
enlarged abdomen, hemorrhoids, and fistula
(abnormal passages from abscesses, cavities or hollow
organs to the skin or other abscesses, cavities or
hollow organs).
Poor digestion with áma (undigested food toxins):
Symptoms include distention, salivation, discomfort,
burning, anorexia, and heaviness. Therapies to
eliminate these problems include drinking warm
water or a decoction made of pippalí and black
mustard seeds. [See also p. 391]
Váyu: Asafoetida, ginger, black pepper, rock
salt, herbal digestive wines.
Pitta: Lodhra, ámalakí, nágke¤har, chiráyatá,
Kapha: Nutmeg, rock salt, ajwan, pippalí.
Intestinal áma: Purgation and digestive stimulants
such as castor oil and cardamom, respectively.

Rasa and áma: Lightening therapy (i.e., pañcha
karma, exercise, foods that are light, hot, sharp, and
dry, carminative/digestive herbs— [e.g., ginger and
musta, harítakí and ginger, drunk with hot water]).
After the stomach is cleansed, persons eat light
foods such as thin gruel and kicharí, followed by
digestive stimulant herbs.
When the digestive fire begins to become
stronger, but stool, urine, and gas retention continue,
persons should be given oil massage and fomentation
for 2 or 3 days, then followed by a non-oily enema.
After Váyu is balanced and the toxins are loose,
one takes castor oil purgation (2 tsp. in a cup of hot
water before bed).
Should there be constipation, an oil enema is
administered, along with digestive stimulants, sour
herbs like ámalakí, and sour pomegranate, and other
Váyu-reducing herbs (i.e., cardamom, ginger, balá).
Váyu: When áma is completely removed, one
takes ghee with digestive stimulant herbs. Herbs like
da¤hmúl, ginger, pippalí, triphalá, t^ikatu, and chitrak
reduce Váyu and promote digestion. Black salt is also
helpful. They are taken with warm water and also
used for massage. One-half cup yogurt and 1/2 cup
water (lassi) taken after meals also improves
Pitta: This doßha is reduced by purgation or
emesis. Afterwards, the digestive fire is stimulated
by eating light, bitter, astringent, cool, and moist
foods; cool liquids, ghee, and sour pomegranates.
Herbs include sandalwood, musta, neem, ginger,
mañjißhþhá, kaóuká, kuþaj, and bilwa. T^ikatu may also
be taken for Pitta digestive problems, though its nature
is heating. One-half cup yogurt and 1/2 cup water
(lassi) taken after meals also improves digestion.
Pungent and sour foods and black salt may be taken
only when mixed with bitter and astringent foods.
Cane sugar or rock sugar is also useful when mixed
with the herbs.
Kapha: Pungent, hot, digestive, and bitter herbs
include viæa´ga, chitrak, mañjißhþhá, cardamom,
turmeric, pippalí, t^ikatu, triphalá, musta, calamus,
guæúchí, and neem. Kapha-reducing foods are taken
as well, including barley.
Abdominal Diseases (Udara Roga)
Causes: All diseases, especially udara roga, are
caused by deranged waste material in the body
(malas—feces, urine, and sweat, and the three
doßhas), caused by poor digestion and metabolism.
The main cause of abdominal disorders is constipation.
Other causes include indigestion, contaminated
food, and accumulation of doßhas and wastes
When the digestive fire is weak and persons eat
foods that are difficult to digest, indigestion develops.
Other causes include unhealthy or unnatural habits
like forcing the passing of stool. The result is an
accumulation of the doßhas that vitiates the Práòa
Váyu, Agni, and Apána Váyu. The excess of air
obstructs the air circulating upward and downward.
These excessed doßhas become lodged between the
skin and the muscle tissues. This causes abdominal
distention, leading to all abdominal diseases,
including the accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal
cavity of the abdomen (ascites). This is caused by
the simultaneous vitiation of all three doßhas.
Different types of these diseases are caused by
various situations, eating overly hot, salty, alkaline
(laxatives), sour, and poisonous foods and liquids,
and improper administration of pañcha karma. Other
causes include improper food, liquids, and habits after
pañcha karma; eating very dry, spoiled, or mutually
adverse foods (e.g., fish and milk, milk and salt, hot
and cold water). Further causes are emaciation from
splenic diseases, hemorrhoids, and sprue
(malabsorption, anemia, and gastrointestinal

Ignoring diseases by continually eating and
drinking harmful food and liquids, and suppressing
the natural urges will also cause abdominal disorders.
Weakening of the channels of circulation, allowing
undigested food toxins to remain in the body, and
over-nourishment can also cause abdominal disorders.
Other causes include the consumption of foods and
liquids that irritate the mind and body; obstructions
caused by hemorrhoids, hair, and hard stools;
intestinal ulcerations or perforations; and excessive
aggravation of the doßhas. These are all related to
excess Kapha and Váyu; a deficiency of Pitta the and
digestive fire.
Eight forms of abdominal distention exist: Váyu,
Pitta, Kapha, Tridoßhic, enlarged spleen (and liver);
rectum, intestines, and ascites (peritoneal).
Premonitory Signs: Loss of hunger, extended
digestion time with burning, inability to tell whether
food is digested (excess Váyu), steady loss of strength,
breathlessness after mild activity, increase of feces
quantity but difficult elimination, slight leg and foot
swelling, joint pain on the sides of the urinary bladder,
distention with bursting pain (even with small
quantities of easily digestible foods), with abdominal
line marks and loss of abdominal folds. One may
experience difficulty digesting sweet, oily, and heavy
foods and liquids, indigestion arising from all foods
and liquids, constant loss of strength, shortness of
breath upon mild exertion, constipation due to dry
foods and Udána Váyu (excess upward moving air),
distention and pain in the lower belly, protruding vein
networks, no folds in the abdomen.
Development: The three doßhas, becoming
aggravated, obstruct both the top and bottom channels
of water metabolism, blocking the channels that carry
sweat and water (Svedhana and udakavaha srotas),
and create abnormalities of outward and downward
moving airs (Práòa and Apána Váyus) and the
metabolism (agni). This causes water to accumulate
between the skin, muscles, and joints, thus enlarging
the abdomen. This causes abdominal disorders of a
Váyu, Pitta, Kapha, or Tridoßhic nature (the first four
of the eight forms of udara roga).
There are eight types: Váyu, Pitta, Kapha,
Tridoßha, and those caused by enlarged spleen (or
liver), intestinal obstruction, intestinal perforation, and
fluid accumulation. Persons with this disease have
dry palates and lips; swollen feet, hands and abdomen;
inactivity, loss of strength and desire for food,
emaciation, severe gas, and a deathly appearance.
Váyu: Because of excess dry foods, insufficient
water, exertion, suppression of the natural urges,
upward movement of air, emaciation and fasting,
excess Váyu results. This excess moves through the
abdominal sides, cardiac region, urinary bladder, and
anus, weakening the digestion, and thereby increasing
Kapha (due to undigested foods). Kapha then blocks
the movement of Váyu that then becomes stuck
between the abdominal skin and muscle tissues, and
causes swelling. Thus, Váyu is the main doßha
responsible for poor digestion, while Kapha is a
secondary factor.
Pitta: Caused by pungent, sour, salty, very hot and
sharp foods, exposure to heat (fire and sun), eating
foods that cause a burning sensation, and eating before
the last meal is digested. When the excessed Pitta
flows to locations of Váyu and Kapha, it blocks them.
Pitta then moves upwards to weaken the digestive
Kapha: Due to a lack of exercise, taking naps,
eating excess sweet and oily foods, eating yogurt,
milk, meat, and living in marshy places. Thus, Kapha
becomes excessed and blocks the circulatory
channels, obstructing Váyu in the outer intestines.
Váyu then puts pressure on Kapha, causing Kapha
types of abdominal diseases.
Tridoßhic: All three doßhas simultaneously
become excessed when a person with poor digestion
eats unwholesome, raw, heavy, or mutually adverse
foods. As a result, the three doßhas slowly accumulate
in the alimentary tract viscera, causing abdominal
Enlarged Spleen and Liver (Plího-yakrddaludara):
Enlarged or displaced spleen is caused by
overly irritating food, excess travel, strenuous exercise,
lifting heavy objects, or walking long distance,
overindulging in sexual activity, emaciation due to
excess vomiting therapies, chronic illness, or excess
blood (either due to an excess quantity of blood, fat,
or muscle tissue). The spleen hardens as it becomes
enlarged. When ignored, the spleen puts pressure on
the abdomen and pancreas, causing this disorder. Five
varieties of plího dara exist: Váyu, Pitta, Kapha,
Tridoßhic, and blood. The enlarged liver is identical
to the spleen; however, it happens only on the right
side of the abdomen.
Intestinal Obstruction (Baddha-gudo-dara):
This is caused by Váyu (as ruler of the rectum)
becoming excessed from obstructions due to small
hairs (e.g., eyelashes) in food, upward moving air in
the abdomen, hemorrhoids, intestinal intrusion into
its passage (lumen), and gas (obstructed Apána Váyu).
This excessed Váyu weakens digestive and metabolic
enzyme power, obstructing the movement of feces,
Pitta, and Kapha, and causes this disease.
Intestinal Perforation (Chidro dara): Caused by
sand, grass, splinters, bones, or nails in food, deep
yawns, or overeating. This intestinal wound begins
to ooze and the food juices reach the exterior of the
intestine. The rectum and intestine become filled with
this liquid, which causes acute abdominal swelling.
Ascites (Udako dara): (Fluid accumulation in
abdominal peritoneal cavity) Poor digestion develops
from drinking excess water after oleation therapy,
being emaciated by weak digestion, or worsening
digestion caused by drinking excess water. From this,
Váyu within the lower left stomach and the duodenum
(kloman) becomes blocked by Kapha. Also, the water
circulatory channel (udakavaha srota) increases its
water supply that obstructs the circulatory channels.
Deranged Váyu and Kapha further increase this water,
causing ascites.
General: Sides of the abdomen are distended,
gurgling noises, leg and hand edema, poor digestion,
smooth chin, and emaciation. One may experience
stupor, debility, accumulation of feces, urine, and
sweat (especially feces); poor digestion, burning,
swelling, gas, and abdominal fluid during the most
serious stages.
There is slight red color with veins appearing, gas
and sounds, obstructions arising and subsiding in the
navel region and intestines, pain in the heart, waist,
navel, rectum and groin, expelling loud sounding gas,
obstructed feces, insufficient urine.
Váyu causes upward-moving air, pain, and gas. Pitta
causes delusion, thirst, burning, and fever. Kapha
causes heaviness, loss of taste and appetite, and
abdominal hardness. The liver, situated on the right
side, when enlarged and displaced, causes abdominal
swelling similar to the spleen.
Váyu: Swelling of hands and feet, scrotum, and
pain in the central and upper abdomen, ribs, waist,
legs, scrotum, and back. One may feel cutting pain in
the joints, dry cough, body ache, heaviness of the
lower body, waste accumulation, grayish or reddish
skin, nails, eyes, urine, and feces; occasional increase
and decrease of the abdomen, pricking and piercing
pain, thick, black abdominal veins, hollow sounding
abdomen (when tapped), gas moves all around the
abdomen with pain and noise. Other symptoms
include abdominal cracks, colic pain in the sides of
the abdomen and chest, upward moving abdominal
air, general weakness, emaciation, weakness,
anorexia, indigestion, cracking pain in the fingers,
lower abdominal heaviness, constipation, unable to
pass gas or urine, Váyu moving up, down, and
sideways with colic pain and noise.
Pitta: Fever, fainting, burning, thirst, bitter taste,
dizziness, diarrhea, yellow or greenish complexion,
nails, eyes, urine, and feces; abdominally veins of
yellow, blue, green, or coppery-red color; perspiration,
heat, soft to the touch, quickly collects fluid. One
may experience giddiness, pungent taste, sense of
pain, smoke rising, and stickiness. These symptoms
may indicate the development of ascites (udako dara).

Kapha: Physical debility, loss of the sensation of
touch, swelling, heaviness, excess sleep, nausea, loss
of taste and appetite, difficult breathing, cough, white
complexion, eyes, nails, feces, and urine, smooth,
unmoving abdomen with a whitish vein network,
slowly increasing over time, becoming hard, cold,
and heavy. One may also develop anorexia, indigestion,
general weakness, numbness, hand, leg, thigh,
and scrotal swellings, hard and heavy abdomen.
Tridoßhic: Appearance of the signs of each doßha
listed above; nails, complexion, eyes, urine, and stool
become afflicted with all the colors mentioned for
each doßha; a vein network with the colors of the
doßhas described above. Other symptoms include
ingesting menstrual blood, wastes, etc., poisons.
When doßhas mixed with blood become aggravated
and localized in the abdomen, it creates emaciation,
fainting, dizziness, and produce an enlarged abdomen,
symptoms of all the doßhas, and quickly developing
fluid. This is a serious condition, most troubling
during cold, windy, and cloudy days.
Spleen /Liver (Plího-yakrddalu dara): The spleen
is displaced from the left side and becomes enlarged
from habitually eating excessive amounts of food,
exhaustion, excess travel, sex, exercise, heavy work,
walking, vomiting, weakness due to diseases,
increased blood, plasma, and other tissues. The
enlarged spleen becomes hard like a stone, then as it
increases, resembles a tortoise shell. This covers the
whole abdomen, along with difficult breathing, cough,
severe thirst, bad taste in mouth, pain, fever, yellowishwhite
complexion, fainting, vomiting, burning,
delusion, slightly red or discolored, with blue or deep
yellow lines. Other symptoms include weakness,
anorexia, indigestion, constipation, urine and
abdominal gas retention, fainting, thirst, vomiting,
prostration, poor digestion, emaciation, finger joint
or colic pain, alimentary tract distention caused by
air, reddish or discolored abdomen, green, yellow, or
blue vein network. The same symptoms develop for
the liver as for the spleen.
Intestinal Obstruction (Baddha-gudo dara):
Thirst, dry mouth and palate, burning sensation, fever,
exhaustion in the thighs, cough, difficult breathing,
weakness, anorexia, indigestion, constipation, not
passing urine, abdominal distention, vomiting, sneezing,
headache, colic pain in the heart, umbilical region,
and anus, no peristaltic movement in the abdomen,
reddish-blue vein network or a knotty vein network,
elongated abdominal swellings looking like a
cow’s tail.
Intestinal Perforation (Chido dara): Eating bones
or other sharp things can puncture or ulcerate the
intestines. The undigested food flows out through that
hole or ulcer in small quantities, collects in the rectum,
gets mixed with feces, becomes foul smelling, slimy,
yellowish-red, and gradually fills and enlarges the
lower abdomen. Then fluid fills the abdomen,
manifesting symptoms of the respective doßhas, and
being associated with difficult breathing, thirst, and
Ascites (Udako dara): No appetite, thirst, colic pain,
difficult breathing, cough, discharge from the anus,
general debility, a multicolored vein network on the
abdomen, hollow sounding abdomen (upon tapping).
Overall, this is considered a difficult disease to
heal; therefore, before any water accumulates in the
abdomen, the condition should be immediately
attended to. If water is allowed to accumulate, the
deranged doßhas become displaced and liquefied.
This will cause stickiness in the joints and circulatory
channels, and divert sweat away from the external
channels (moving the sweat sideways). This sideways
movement further adds to the accumulated abdominal
water. The sticky fluid makes the abdomen round,
heavy, and numb; the sides of the abdomen become
excessively enlarged. The vein networks then
disappear and the navel area is mainly afflicted. Then
the disease spreads to the rest of the abdomen and
water begins to accumulate therein.
If the condition is still not corrected, persons
experience complications of vomiting, diarrhea,
tamaka (bronchial) asthma, thirst, and difficult
breathing. Other complications include pain in the
sides of the chest, hoarseness, anorexia, and
suppression of urine. At this point, the disease can
only be controlled but no longer healed unless strong
medicines (i.e., with poisonous properties) are

prescribed or surgery is performed.
After 14 to 15 days without treatment, abdominal
swelling (baddha-gudo dara) cannot be healed (but
can still be controlled). Ascites with water in the
abdomen, and acute abdominal swelling due to
intestinal perforation (chidro dara) can only be healed
by poisonous medicines or surgery.
Although some illnesses are generally curable,
there may be other complications that allow these
illnesses to be controlled but not completely cured.
Complications include swollen eyes, curved genitalia,
sticky and thin skin, weakened strength, blood,
muscle, and digestion.
Symptoms of swelling of the heart, difficult
breathing, hiccup, anorexia, thirst, fainting, vomiting,
and diarrhea are the most life-threatening
Abdominal diseases may also exist without the
accumulation of water (ajátodaka). Its symptoms
include almost no swelling (in the abdomen or legs),
reddish abdomen, hollow sound upon tapping, not
very heavy, gurgling sounds are always present.
Persons may experiences a vein network covering
the abdomen, gas will move from the rectum to the
navel, distending the navel area (distention releases
after passing stool and gas). Other symptoms include
colic pain around the heart, navel, groin, lumbar, and
anus; forceful elimination of gas, moderate digestion.
Excessive salivation causes a lack of taste in the
mouth, scanty urine, and hard stools.
These diseases are the most difficult to heal unless
the diseases are detected in early stages, there is no
fluid, and the diseased person is still strong.
Therapy is suggested when there is no abdominal
swelling, reddish, hollow sounding (upon tapping),
not very heavy, and continual gurgling sounds. Other
symptoms that require therapy include many vein
networks, a distended navel (that subsides after
passing the gas), pain in the heart, groin, waist, navel,
and anus. Further symptoms include passing hard gas,
moderate to strong digestion, mouth salivation
causing tastelessness, scanty urine, or hard stools. All
these signs indicate symptoms without fluid; they may
undergo therapy for healing.
Persons having swollen eyes, crooked genitals,
moist and thick skin, lack of strength, blood, digestion,
and suffering from emaciation should not undergo
therapy. Abdominal disorders, with complications of
swollen vital organs, difficult breathing, hiccup,
anorexia, thirst, fainting, vomiting, and diarrhea are
considered fatal.
General: Since this illness is mostly caused by
the contribution of all the doßhas, therapies to alleviate
all three doßhas are used. Appetizing, light foods (e.g.,
basmati rice, barley, green lentils, múngdal, barley
gruel, vegetables).
Herbs include pippalí, harítakí, ginger, chitrak,
and viæa´ga with cane sugar, rock salt, and ghee. The
watery residue of yogurt (whey—muttadh/takra) is
useful in all abdominal diseases. Persons should avoid
animal products (especially fish), sesame seeds,
pastries, foods that are hot, salty, sour, burning, and
heavy; water, physical exercise, long walks, naps, long
Váyu: When persons are strong, they first undergo
oil massage and fomentation, followed by castor oil
purgation. Once the doßha is balanced and the
abdomen no loner distended, a cloth bandage is
wrapped around the abdomen to prevent Váyu from
distending it again; the cloth compresses space that
can cause a pocket of gas. Purgation is done daily to
remove accumulated doßhas obstructing the digestive
channels. After passing stool, one eats a Váyureducing
diet and drinks boiled milk (before meals
or after food is digested) to develop strength. Once
strong, the person gradually reduces intake of milk
to prevent nausea.
If upward movement of Váyu (Udána/reverse
peristalsis) occurs, the digestive fire is strengthened
by vegetable soups with a bit of sour and salty tastes
to it. Later, oil massage, fomentation, and dry enemas
are given. Oil enemas are used for twitching,
convulsions, pain in the joints, in cases of twichings,
convulsions, pain in joints, bones, sides, back, and
sacrum. This enema is also useful for persons
suffering from stool and gas retention, or for the strong
If persons are weak, old, or very young, or with
only a slight increase of Váyu, the only therapy

suggested is pacification. Persons need a mild Váyureducing
diet. Examples include ghee, vegetables,
soup, rice, boiled milk (alone), dry or oil enema, mild
massage, yogurt/water drink (1:1) with pippalí, and
black salt.
Non-oily enemas use da¤hmúl with rhubarb or
other strong purgatives, while oil enemas include
castor or sesame oil cooked with Váyu-reducing herbs
(e.g., triphalá, cardamom), and sour herbs like
Váyu: With side pain, stiffness, and constricted heart
area, herbs include bilwa and balá. Oil laxatives like
castor oil are useful. Afterwards, t^ikatu, da¤hmúl, or
hi´g is taken.
Pitta: Strong persons use purgatives from the
beginning of therapy, while weak persons are first
cleansed by oil enemas, and then by milk enemas.
When their physical and digestive strength returns,
they receive an oil massage, followed by purgation
with boiled milk and castor oil, yogurt/water (1:1)
drink with cane sugar.
Kapha: First oil massage, then fomentation
followed by evacuation through fomentation, sweat,
and laxatives. After that, one takes Kapha-reducing
foods, liquids, and herbs for pacification, 3/4 warm
water with 1/4 fat-free yogurt (lassi) with t^ikatu.
Kapha/Váyu: Ghee and sesame oil with ginger
and pippalí.
Tridoßha: The therapies used depend upon the
most vitiated doßhas. One quarter fat-free yogurt with
3/4 water (lassi), mixed with cane sugar, t^ikatu, and
rock salt.
Enlarged Liver and Spleen: Aloe gel, chiráyatá
(or gentian), saffron (or safflower), punarnavá,
bhúámalakí, and bh^i´garáj with ghee. Light foods
and vegetables are also eaten. Váyu or Kapha forms
may require cauterization. Pitta excesses require milk
enemas, drinking boiled milk and bloodletting.
Yogurt/water with honey, sesame oil, calamus, and
ginger are other therapies.
Cirrhosis—bh^iògaráj is the best herb; other
herbs for enlarged liver.
Infected Hepatitis—guæúchí, sudarähan, iron
supplements; and enlarged liver herbs; nila (isatis)—
Chronic Liver Complaints—aloe gel, guæúchí
extract, ámalakí, ¤hatávarí; olive, sesame, and
avocado oils rebuild the liver.
Intestinal Obstruction: Fomentation followed by
non-oily and oil enemas, irritant herbs (e.g., chitrak,
pepper, ginger, harítakí), oil, and salt. Rhubarb, castor
oil, or senna purge the system, healing reverse
peristalsis and Váyu. Yogurt water with rock salt and
pippalí is also helpful. Boiled milk with ginger,
viæa´ga, chitrak, or t^ikatu is another useful remedy.
Intestinal Perforation: Kapha therapy is used
(except for fomentation), and includes yogurt/water
with pippalí and raw honey. If thirst, cough, fever,
loss of weight (deteriorated in flesh), poor digestion,
lack of hunger, difficult breathing, colic, or weakened
senses exist, therapies cannot help the condition.
[When the digestive fire (pachak agni) is reduced,
food is not digested or absorbed. Thus, persons do
not gain weight. Hot spices increase the digestive fire.]
Ascites: Kapha-reducing foods and few liquids.
Herbs include t^ikatu, calamus, triphalá, and chitrak.
Yogurt/water with raw honey and sesame oil are other
useful therapies.
Complications: With edema, hard bowels, colic
thirst, or fainting, herbs are used for debilitation after
passing stools. Boiled milk is also helpful.
A¤hwagandhá with ghee is spread on the abdomen,
and water (with punarnavá, calamus, ginger, and
coriander) is sprinkled over it (this herbal mixture is
also ingested).
Váyu with edema, distention, tumors and
hemorrhoids: Pippalí, chitrak, ginger, and da¤hmúl.

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