General Descripition:

Drugs according to the formulation composition of the particular Choorna¸a are collected, dried,
powdered individually and passed through sieve number 85 to prepare a fine powder. They are mixed in
the specified proportion and stored in well closed container.
The term Choorna may be applied to the powder prepared by a single drug or a combination of
more drugs.
Raja and Ksoda are the synonyms for Choorna.Choornas may be of plant origin, or mixed with other
ingredients. The following points are to be noted.
If metals / minerals are used, prepare Bhasma or Sind£ra of the minerals unless otherwise
In cases where Parada and Gandhaka are mentioned, prepare Kajjal¢ and add other drugs, one by
one, according to the formula.
In general the aromatic drugs like Hi´ngu [Asafoetida] etc. should be fried before they are
converted to fine powders.
Specific care should be taken in case of Salts and Sugars. Formulations with hygroscopic
components should not usually be prepared during rainy seasons. If so, specific precautions should be
taken during storage.
Choornas should be stored in air tight containers. Polyethylene and foil packing also provides
damp proof protection.
Special precaution for storage should be taken in cases of formulations with salts, sugars and Ksharas.


General Description:
Avaleha or Lehya is a semi-solid preparation of drugs, prepared with addition of jaggery, sugar
or sugar-candy and boiled with prescribed juices or decoction.
These preparations generally have
(1) Kashaya or other liquids,
(2) Jaggery, sugar or sugar-candy,
(3) Powders or pulps of certain drugs,
(4) Ghee or oil and
(5) Honey.
Jaggery, sugar or sugar-candy is dissolved in the liquid and strained to remove the foreign
particles. This solution is boiled over a moderate fire. When pressed between two fingers if Paka
becomes thready (Tantuvat), or when it sinks in water without getting easily dissolved, it should be
removed from the fire. Fine powders of drugs are then added in small quantities and stirred continuously
to form a homogenous mixture. Ghee or oil, if mentioned, is added while the preparation is still hot and
mixed well. Honey, if mentioned is added when the preparation becomes cool and mixed well.
The Lehya should neither be hard nor a thick fluid. When pulp of the drugs is added and ghee or
oil is present in the preparation, this can be rolled between the fingers. When metals are mentioned, the
Bhasmas of the metals are used. In case of drugs like Bhall¡taka, purification process is to be followed.
The Lehya should be kept in glass or porcelain jars. It can also be kept in a metal container
which does not react with it. Normally, Lehyas should be used within one year.

Asavas and Arishtas

Asavas and Arishtas
General Description:
Ësavas and Arishtas are medicinal preparations made by soaking the drugs, either in coarse
powder form or in the form of decoction (Kashaya), in a solution of sugar or jaggery, as the case may be,
for a specified period of time, during which it undergoes a process of fermentation generating alcohol,
thus facilitating the extraction of the active principles contained in the drugs. The alcohol, so generated,
also serves as a preservative.
The drugs mentioned in the texts are coarsely  powdered and Kashaya is prepared. The
Kashaya is strained and kept in the fermentation vessel. Sugar, jaggery or honey*, according to the
formula, is dissolved, boiled, filtered and added. Drugs mentioned as PrakÀepa Dravyas are finely
powdered and added. At the end, Dhatakipushpa, if included in the formula, should be properly cleaned
and added. The mouth of the vessel is sealed. The container is kept either in a special room
(Alternatively, in an underground cellar or in a heap of paddy, so as to ensure that for the duration of
fermentation, as far as possible, a constant temperatures may impede or accelerate the fermentation).
After the specified period, the lid is removed, and the contents examined to ascertain whether the
process of fermentation (Sandh¡na) has been completed. The fluid is first decanted and then strained
after two or three days. When the fine suspended particles settle down, it is strained again and bottled.
The required quantity of water, to which jaggery or sugar as prescribed in the formula is added,
is boiled and cooled. This is poured into the fermentation pot, vessel or barrel. Fine powders of the
drugs mentioned in the formula are added. The container is covered with a lid and the edges are sealed
with clay-smeared cloth wound in seven consecutive layers. The rest of the process is as in the case of
If the fermentation is to be carried in an earthen vessel, it should not be new. Water should be
boiled first in the vessel. Absolute cleanliness is required during the process. Each time, the inner
surface of the fermentation vessel should be fumigated with Pippal¢ C£r¸a and smeared with ghee
before the liquids poured into it (in large scale manufacture, wooden-vats, porcelain-jars or metal
vessels are used in place of earthen vessels.).
The filtered Ësava or Arishta should be clear without froth at the top. It should not become sour
(Cukra). The preparation has the characteristics of aromatic alcoholic odour.
Asavas and Arishtas can be kept indefinitely. They should be kept in well-stoppered bottles or
* Honey, where mentioned, should be added as such without being dissolved or boiled.

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