Botanical name:
ocimum sanctum,Family(Lamiaceae)

An erect and herbaceous branched plant, 1 meter high or less. Stems are 
covered with spreading hairs. Leaves are oblong-ovate and 2 to 4-5 cm long, with 
pointed or blunt tips, somewhat toothed margins. Flowers are pink or purplish,
 about 7 mm long, borne on racemes 5 to 14 cm long. Corolla is small. 
Nutlets rounded or broadly oblong, slightly compressed and smooth.

Found throughout India

Parts utilizedwhole plant
Properties and constituentsUsed as a mosquito repellant
 in India and South Africa.
Leaves yield a volatile oils or methyl homo anisic acid,

 plus cineol and linalool.
Seed decoction used as demulcent.
Leaves are expectorant and stomachic.
Considered to possess antifertility, anticancer, antidiabetic,

 antifungal, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective,
 antiemetic, antispasmodic, analgesic actions.
Eugenol (1-hydroxy-2-methoxy-4-allybenzene), the active constituent, 

considered to be largely responsible for its therapeutic potential.

It is the most sacred plant in Hindu religion. 
In Malaya, leaves are eaten sparingly as salad., but not used

 for flavoring foods. Folkloric
Decoction of leaves used for aromatic baths.
Decoction of roots and leaves used for gonorrhea.
Used for rheumatic baths.
Dried plant used for croup, diarrhea, catarrh, bronchitis and diarrhea.
Decoction of roots used as diaphoretic for malarial fevers.
Leaf juice used for earache.
Infusion of leaves as stomachic and hepatic infections.
Fresh juice iinduces vomitiing and expels worms.
Mixed with honey, ginger and onion juice, used as expectorant

 for bronchitis and coughs.
In Java, used to increase milk secretion.
In India, leaf juice traditionally used for cough, bronchitis, asthma,

 malaria, dysentery, stress situations, worm infestations,
superficial fungal infections, and as diuretic.
 Radioprotective: The radioprotective effects of two flavonoids,

 orientin and vicenin from the leaves of OS were studied by 
evaluating chromosome aberration in bone marrow cells of
 irradiated mice. Results suggest ocimum flavonoids may 
be promising for human radiationn protection.
 Hypoglycemic:In a study, one of 24 of 30 medicinal plants, OS showed

 significant blood glucose lowering activity.
 Anti-anxiety: Ethanolic extract study showed leaves possess

 anti-anxiety effects probably through a central nervous system pathway
 that may involve the GABA-ergic system. Another study on
 noise-induced changes in rats were normalized with
 pretreatment with OS extract indicating its stress-alleviating effect. 
 Anti-tussive: Study shows an antitussive effect probably by 

central action mediated through both opiod and GABA-ergic system.
• :Antibacterial: Study of ethanol extracts showed 

antibacterial activity, greater in Gram positive bacter than gram-negative, 
esp against B subtilis and S aureus; comparatively less than
 Origanum majorana. Another study on OS essential oil showed 
marked antibacterial efficiency against all bacteria tested, maximum 
against S aureus and marked antibacterial efficacy against P mirabilis, 
P aeruginosa, Klebsiella sp and E coli.
 CNS-Protective: A study showed the ethanol leaf extract of 

O sanctum to have a protective effect against haloperidol-iinduced
 catalepsy and indicates that OS may be used to prevent drug-induced 
extrapyramidal effects.
 Antioxidant: A study showed the leaves of OS to possess

 both superoxide and hydroxyl free radical scavenging effect
 and attributes the antioxidant property to be responsible for its
 hypoglycemic effect.
 Myocardial Salvaging Effect: A study showed 

Ocimum sanctum has cardioprotecdtive effects against 
ISP-induced myocardial necrosis probably through improved 
ventricular function, augmentation of endogenous antioxidants 
and suppression of oxidative stress.
 Anti-cancer activity: Administration of aqueous and ethanolic 

extracts of Ocimum sanctum to mice with sarcomatous tumor resulted 
in a significant reduction in tumor volume and increase in lifespan.
 Anti-Fertility / Abortifacient: Leaves of O sanctum are said to be 
abortifacient in women. The benzene and petroleum ether extracts of 
leaves have been reported to produce 80% to 60% antifertility activity
 in female rats. In male rats, benzene extract of leaves has been reported 
to re4duce spermatogenesis by retarding sertoli cell activity.
 Anti-Ulcer activity: Study showed the extract of OS possess 

antiulcerogenic properties with reduction of the ulcer index, free and
 total acidity in rats. Seven days of treatment increased mucous secretion.
 Antidiabetic activity: A study indicated OS leaf extracts to have

 stimulatory effects on physiological pathways of insulin secretion
 to explain its antidiabetic action.
 Hepatoprotective activity: A study showed the leaf extract of 

OS to have a hepatoprotective effect on hepatotoxicty induced by 
antitubercular drugs. The exact mechanism has not been defined, 
but OS antioxidant activity seems to be the most important
 mode of its hepatoprotective effect.
 Eugenol: Ocimum sanctum is a cheaper source for the commercial 

extraction of eugenol. The aerial parts (leaves, flowers and stems)
 contain essential oils with good percentage of eugenol. The use
 of O sanctum in the treatment of gastric ulcer has been attributed to
 the antiulcerogenic action of eugenol and essential oil from leaves.
It has also been shown to be immunostimulant.
 Anti-Noise / Stress Alleviating: Study of ethanolic extract on 

noise stress induced changes in albino rats – leukopenia, increased 
corticosterone levels and enhanced neutrophil functions as indicated
 by increase in Candida phagocytosis and NBT reduction, showed
 normalization of the altered values by pretreatment with O S extract

Sun stroke

Sunstroke, more correctly called heatstroke, is a disorder of the body's heat-regulating mechanism caused by
overexposure to the sun or great heat, while in a humid atmosphere. It can also be brought about through excessive
exercise. Sunstroke shows symptoms similar to heat exhaustion--both have headache, dizziness and weakness--but
in sunstroke there is a high temperature and absence of sweating, while in heat exhaustion there is sweating with a
normal or below normal temperature.
Sunstroke can be dangerous. The high temperature should be brought down as quickly as possible, as above 104°F
(40°c) the person may collapse and become unconscious, with circulatory failure in severe cases. The immediate
treatment is to bring down the temperature by wrapping the person in a wet sheet, and create a draught by fanning
or switching on an electric fan. Keep the sheet wet and sponge the face. Once the person has cooled down, cover
with a dry sheet: if the temperature begins to climb again, allopathic treatment is immediately necessary.
General treatment should include giving a little water to drink, with half a teaspoon of salt added per half-litre of
water, or an electrolyte replacer such as a sports drink. In stable cases, the following remedies can be used.
Sunstroke with hot dizzy sensation and bursting pressure. Person anxious and restless, worse from sitting up. The
skin is red and dry.
Aconite 6c, every 30-60 minutes.
Sunstroke with headache from the heat of the sun, with pounding head, flushed face and bloodshot eyes, person is
bathed in sweat.
Belladonna 6c, every 1-2 hours.
Sunstroke with violent, pounding headache, pale face and fixed eyes, white tongue and laboured breathing.
Glonoine 6c, every 2-3 hours.
Hot, dry and inflamed, with flushed face and feverish symptoms.
Ferrum phos 6x, a tissue salt, every 1-2 hours.
Sunstroke with stupefied, giddy, intoxicated feeling and band-like pain around the head.
Gelsemium 6c, every 2-3 hours.

Collapse after overexposure to the sun, with great coldness.
Camphor 6c, every 30 minutes.
Headache after sun exposure, like a thousand tiny hammers, with debility and thirst.
Nat mur 6x, a tissue salt, every 1-2 hours.


Sunburn may lead to nothing more than a temporary reddening of the skin, or it may progress to blistering and
deeper damage. It can be relieved temporarily by the application of aloe vera gel. Other external applications are as
for burns; some internal remedies follow.
Sunburn with heat, redness and pain.
Ferrum phos 6x, a tissue salt, every 1-2 hours.
Sunburn with redness, heat and throbbing, worse from touch.
Belladonna 6c, every 1-2 hours until improved, then one dose every time the pain returns.
Sunburn, with large blisters, burning and containing clear or bloody liquid.
Cantharis 30c, every 3-4 hours for 1 day, then 1 dose every time the pain returns.
Sunburn peeling and leaving a raw, oozing surface, itching and burning.
Bufo 6c, every 1-2 hours.

Sprains And Strains

Sprains and Strains
Strains occur when the ligaments around a joint have been stretched, and sprains when they have been torn. The
surrounding membranes of the joint may also be involved, resulting in fluid building up, which stretches the joint
capsule and limits joint movement. In all cases, pain, swelling and discoloration occur. If the joint is badly
displaced or wobbling, or impossible to straighten or bend, allopathic treatment is necessary, but can be followed
with advantage by homoeopathic treatment

Muscular problems, such as stiffness after unaccustomed exercise, have essentially the same treatment, so are
covered here as well.
As a general treatment.
Apply ice packs immediately, externally.
For muscle strain after unaccustomed exercise, involving rupture, swelling and bruised pain.
Arnica tincture, diluted 1 in 10, applied locally as a firm compress;
Arnica 6c, internally, every 3-4 hours.
For a sprain or strain of joint, with painful ligament, tendon or bone.
Ruta grav tincture, diluted 1 in 10, externally.
Ruta grav 6c, internally, every 3-4 house.
For painful muscle and tendons, from overexertion, with pain that is worse on initial motion and better on
continued motion.
Rhus tox 6c, every 3-4 hours.

Puncture Wounds

Puncture Wounds
This type of wound is usually caused by a nail, thorn, splinter or similarly sharp-pointed object. Although the
wound may appear insignificant, deeper structures may be injured, or infection may be implanted. Damage to
important organs, or large blood vessels, requires allopathic treatment.
Watch for tetanus. The typical case of tetanus occurs from a sharp but dirty object that punctures the skin and
penetrates a short distance, with the wound closing over when the sharp object is withdrawn. The incubation period
for tetanus (the time taken for any implanted tetanus infection to produce enough toxin to affect the spinal cord)
may be anywhere from two to thirty days; the average is about ten. The longer the period of incubation, the milder
the disease. After any untreated deep puncture wounds, tetanus should always be suspected if the patient complains
of cramping, especially in the face or bowel. The following remedies can be used on puncture wounds while
allopathic advice is being immediately sought.
General treatment externally.
Ledum tincture, 1 in 10 dilution.
General treatment internally.
Ledum 6c, every 3-4 hours for a few days.
If the wound is painful, and there are shooting pains.
Hypericum 6c, every 3-4 hours, each time pain returns.


All fractures require allopathic treatment. Any suspected broken bones should be moved as little as possible, to
prevent further injury. Fractures of the skull, neck or spine are usually the most dangerous. Bleeding from the ears,
mouth, nose or into the eyes is often a sign of skull fracture. If the patient cannot move the fingers, the neck may
be broken, while if they cannot move their legs, the back may be broken. In these cases, do not move the patient
unless absolutely necessary, and call an ambulance. Fractures of arms or legs should be immobilised and allopathic
treatment sought.
As a general treatment for trauma and bruising.
Arnica 6c, every 3-4 hours.
If nerve damage is involved, with shooting pains.
Hypericum 6c, every 3-4 hours.
As a general treatment, to aid knitting of the bones.
Ruta grav 6c, every 3-4 hours.
For aching, throbbing pain in bones.
Eupatorium 6c, every 3-4 hours.
For prickling pain as the bone is knitting.
Symphytum 6c, every 3-4 hours.
To promote the union of fractured bones.
Calc phos 6x, a tissue salt, every 3-4 hours.

Cuts and Scratches

Cuts And Scratches
Cuts and scratches are generally regarded as only skin deep, and require only antiseptic treatment. Deeper cuts may
have divided not only the skin, but also structures underneath it such as ligaments and nerves, and in such cases
surgical attention is necessary. Test to see if all normal movements can be carried out, and that there are no numb
areas. Stitches will be needed if the wound is gaping and cannot be drawn together.
First aid for cuts, scratches, and sharp wounds is substantially the same as for abrasions. Cleaning the wound is
always necessary, but it is particularly important if it is an animal scratch. Suppuration (oozing of pus) should be watched cautiously, and allopathic advice should be sought if it
worsens, and especially if the lymph nodes in the armpit, neck or groin become swollen or red streaks develop
around the wound.
For general purposes, externally.
Hypercal (equal parts of calendula and hypericum tincture), applied undiluted locally or diluted 1 in 10.
For clean-cut, deep or surgical cuts, with sharp stinging pain.
Staphysagria 6c, every 3-4 hours.
For inflammation locally.
Hepar sulph 6c, every 3-4 hours.
For sharp pain shooting up the limb.
Hypericum 6c, every 3-4 hours.
For wounds with suppuration, and where the patient has great sensitivity to the slightest touch.
Hepar sulph 6c, every 3-4 hours.


Concussion is a special kind of bruising, where the brain has been bruised from a blow to the head. The symptoms
vary, depending on the severity and extent of the injury. Mild cases may show no more than dizziness, passing off
after an hour or two. In more serious cases the face and skin are pale, there are alterations in pulse rate and
breathing, unequal pupil size and loss of consciousness. If vomiting occurs, ensure the airways are clear. There may
be bleeding inside the mouth or throat. In very serious cases, symptoms are coma, diminished pulse and breathing,
and cold extremities. In all cases of concussion other than mild ones allopathic advice should be sought.
Loss of memory after concussion.
Arnica 200c or 1M--h
For concussion with resultant depression.
Nat sulph 200c--
Whether loss of consciousness has occurred or not.
Arnica 6c, every 30 minutes for 5 or 6 doses.


Collapse is always a serious incident, and should be regarded gravely. These remedies are included for emergency
treatment only, while allopathic advice is being sought. Nevertheless they are very effective, and have produced
many remarkable recoveries.
For shock immediately after an accident.
Aconite 6c, every 30 minutes.
For sudden and complete prostration, where the skin is dry and very cold, but the patient will not be covered or
objects to it. Camphor is a good remedy for shock.
Camphor 6c, every 30 minutes.
For fainting or collapse, with cold sweat on the forehead and the whole body is icy cold.
Veratrum album 6c, every 30 minutes.
To reduce the prolonged effects of shock.
Arnica 6c, every 3-4 hours.
Patient is blue and cold; lies motionless as if dead, wants fresh air and to be fanned. Carbo veg is often called 'the
corpse reviver' because of its success in collapse.
Carbo veg 6c, every 30 minutes.
For extreme weakness of the neck muscles, with heaviness of the head; the legs give out when walking, patient can
hardly stand, walk or talk.
Cocculus 6c, every 3-4 hours.
Patient faints easily, from extremes of cold or heat, after getting wet, kneeling, and other minor causes.
Sepia 6c, every 3-4 hours.


It is customary to classify burns according to the damage that has been done. A first degree burn is only redness of
the skin. Second degree burns involve blistering, while third degree bums involve damage to the deeper layers of
the skin and the oozing of clear liquid from raw, inflamed areas. In fourth degree burns, destruction of the whole
skin has occurred. Allopathic treatment should always be sought for burns of the third or fourth degree, and the
patient should be kept covered and comfortable.
All burns are dangerous if not properly treated: the conditions to be aware of are infection, pain and shock.
Clothing not adhering to severely burned areas should be cut away, but clothing burned into the flesh is most likely
sterile and should not be removed.
In severe burns, immediate applications of egg white, ice or honey are good emergency dressings. Cotton wool,
oily substances and antiseptics are to be avoided. In less severe burns, a local dressing can be made with clean
gauze. Saturate the gauze with Urtica tincture for first degree burns, and Hypericum tincture for second degree
burns, 20 drops to a little water. Re-apply liquid often to keep dressing moist.
Immediate treatment, first and second degree burns.
Cold water or ice on the burn.
Immediate treatment, third degree burns.
Apply egg white liberally.
When healing has started and pain subsided.
Apply a mixture of Hypericum and Calendula tinctures (Hypercal), diluted 1 in 10, locally.
For shock.
Arnica 6c, every 1-2 hours.
For persistent stinging.
Urtica 30c, every time pain recurs.
If there is fear of death, with anxiety and restlessness.
Aconite 6c, every 30-60 minutes.
For burns where the skin is red, shiny, hot and throbbing, and the pain is worsened by touching.
Belladonna 6c, every 15-30 minutes.
Burns when there is a swelling and sometimes looking like orange peel, with sensations of burning and stinging as
if pricked by a hundred needles.
Apis 6c, every 15-30 minutes.

For second degree burns, with large blisters and intense pain.
Cantharis 30c, every time pain recurs.
Scarring third degree burns, with pains that are worse at night and soothed by warmth.
Arsenicum alb 6c, every 3-4 hours.
Deep bums of third degree, where yellow-green ulcers have formed.
Kali bich 30c, every time pain recurs.
For painful burns with a drawing, tightening sensation.
Causticum 30c, every 3-4 hours.

Bruises and Blows

Bruises and Blows
Injuries of this type are usually caused by collision with a hard, blunt object, with resulting damage to the soft
tissue. The rupture of capillaries and small blood vessels results in the seepage of blood under the skin, with pain,
swelling and discoloration. Blows to the head, chest and abdomen should be watched carefully. Increased pulse
rate, pallor and distressed breathing, as well as obvious deterioration, are signs that immediate allopathic
intervention is needed.Treatment
The following remedies are useful in serious cases while allopathic attention is being sought
Shock. Concussion with pallor, stupor or loss of consciousness.
Arnica 6c, every 3-4 hours.
Patient is blue and cold, and has a scanty sweat; does not want to be covered.
Camphor 6c, every 3-4 hours.
Patient is cold and blue with a profuse cold sweat.
Veratrum album 6c, every 3-4 hours.
The body is cold, face grayyellow, the patient must have air.
Carbo veg 6c, every 3-4 hours.
For different types of bruises
To limit swelling and discoloration.
Ice packs on the bruise, if applied immediately.
On soft tissue when the skin is unbroken.
Arnica tincture 1 in 10 on the skin.
Arnica 6c internally, every 3-4 hours.
On soft tissue when the skin is broken.
Hamamelis tincture 1 in 10 on the skin.
Hammamelis 6c internally, every 3-4 hours.
On areas rich in nerves (e.g. base of neck or spine).
Hypericum tincture 1 in 10 on the skin.
Hypericum 6c, internally every 3-4 hours.
Bruises to the breast.
Bellis 6c, every 3-4 hours.
For bruises to eyes (black eyes)
As a general treatment.
Arnica tincture, diluted 1 in 10, on the bruise.
Arnica 6c internally, every 3-4 hours.
If arnica is not successful, or if the bruise is turning green.
Ledum 6c, every 3-4 hours.
For extreme pain in the eye itself.
Hypericum 6c every 3-4 hours, or every time the pain returns.
For bruises to the bone surface
As a general treatment.
Symphytum 6c, every 3-4 hours.
Jamming or crushing of fingers or toes.
Hypericum 6c, every 3-4 hours.

Insect bites and stings

Insect Bites and Stings
Ledum and Apis given internally are useful generally for treating insect bites and stings, and most symptoms will
yield rapidly using these two remedies alone.
Allergic reactions to insect bites should be treated differently: these appear as rapid and large swellings, beginning
at the site of the sting and spreading out. If the sting is on the neck, if it causes breathing difficulty, or if the person
has a known sensitivity to stings, allopathic advice should be sought immediately.
Lemon juice applied locally is a good first-line treatment.Ledum tincture applied to the bite as a compress

As a general treatment.
Ledurn tincture 1 in 10 externally, followed by Urtica tincture 1 in 10 if Ledum does not cause improvement.

For mosquito bites or insect stings that feel worse from warm applications, and better from cold applications.
Ledum 6c every 3-4 hours.
For bee or wasp stings,that are bright red and swollen, painful, burning and itching and that become worse in
Apis 6c, every 3-4 hours.
For ant bites, with sudden rheumatic and gouty pains.
Formica rufa 6c, every 1-2 hours.
For pain, in extremely sensitive areas, especially when it is darting or shooting.
Hypericum 6c, every 3-4 hours, or whenever pain returns.
To reduce infection and promote healing.
Calendula 6c, every 3-4 hours.
For shock after stings, if the person is anxious and restless.
Aconite 6c, every 3-4 hours.
For itchy, blotchy skin, with burning and pain.
Urtica 6c, every 3-4 hours.
Animal, Spider and Repile Bites
These bites are dangerous, particularly snake and spider bites. In these cases, the entire limb should be wrapped in
compressive bandages such as crepe bandage or panty hose as soon as possible after the event to reduce fluid flow.
The limb should then be immobilised, and allopathic treatment should immediately be found. It should also be
noted that human bites can be extremely infectious.
The following remedies can be used while allopathic advice is being sought.
As a local treatment.
For bites that are swollen and blackish-purple in color, with swollen lymph nodes.
Tarentula 12c, every 3-4 hours.
For shock, anxiety, restlessness, or fear of death.
Aconite 6c, every 3-4 hours.
Tick Bites
Using tweezers, try to remove the tick whole, taking special care to ensure the head is not left behind.
Alternatively, put a drop of kerosene or olive oil on the tickthis may make it fall off.
As a local application.
Ledum tincture 1 in 10, applied to the bite.
For tick bite in animals, with paralysis of the rear limbs.
Lathyrus 30c can be obtained from a practitioner.
As a general treatment.
Ledum 6c internally, every 3-4 hours.
In collapse due to tick poisoning, with a craving for fresh air.
Carbo veg 6c, every 3-4 hours, while allopathic treatment is being sought.

Abrasions and Lacerations

Abrasions and Lacerations
Abrasions are wounds where the surface layer of skin has been taken off. Deeper damage, especially involving
underlying muscle, nerves and blood vessels, is a laceration; these wounds are typically torn and jagged, and are
often badly pulped.
The first action needed is always to stop any bleeding. Elevation of the wound (holding it higher than the rest of
the body) will always help. Clean the wound as far as possible: holding it under cold running water will
substantially remove debris although embedded particles may need to be removed with forceps or tweezers. Large
wounds may need pressure to bring the edges together, and usually require stitching.
Wounds containing badly pulped tissue, or showing uncontrollable suppuration, should be treated cautiously
The choice of lotion or ointment to apply depends on the nature of the wound. Homeopathic lotions are known as
tinctures, and may be put directly on the wound, or on a pierce of gauze (the gauze should be kept moist). They are useful when maximum penetration of a wound is necessary. It is rarely necessary to apply the tincture undiluted, as
a dilution of about I in 10 parts water works just as well, and is more economical. Ointments are more greasy, and
do not penetrate as well as tinctures, but they have the advantage of sealing the wound to some extent and so the
wound may not require further covering.
For wounds oozing dark, (venous) blood.
Hamamelis tincture diluted 1 in 10, applied locally.
Internally Hamamelis 6c, every 3-4 hours.
For wounds with bright red (arterial) blood.
Calendula tincture 1 in 10, applied locally.
Internally Calendula 6c, every 3-4 hours.
If local inflammation (redness, heat, swelling and tenderness) sets in.
Hepar sulph 6c, every 3-4 hours.
For wounds likely to suppurate.
Equal parts of Hypericum and Calendula tincture (Hypercal) diluted 1 in 10, applied locally.
Internally Calendula 6c, every few hours.
For pain that is sharp, intense and shooting.
Hypericum 6c internally, every 3-4 hours, or whenever the pain returns.

How to Use Homoeopathic medicines

How to Use Homeopathic Medicines
Remedies should be stored in a cool, dark place such as a cupboard or drawer, and away from strong-smelling
perfumes and liniments. They should not be stored in the refrigerator, nor close to microwave ovens or computers.
They should be taken under the tongue in a clean mouth, preferably about half an hour before meals. Avoid
drinking coffee completely while taking homeopathic medicines (tea, however, is okay), and do not take after using
Selecting the Remedy
If you are familiar with homeopathic prescribing, you will know that homeopaths can ask patients many curious
questions, and may base their choice of the correct remedy on a number of different and apparently unrelated
conditions. Symptoms such as being worse in a draught, or always better in humid weather or in the open air, can
decisively indicate the correct choice of remedy.

competence. But you will soon become aware that these medicines work best
by treating the patient as an individual and the body as a whole.

It is the understanding of the pattern of symptoms in a remedywhat the homeopaths call a symptom picturethat is
the key to prescribing. A remedy that closely matches in its symptom picture the symptoms of the patient is known
in homeopathy as the similimum, the most similar remedy, and is the one to prescribe. In these cases, its action is
dramatic and gratifying, and quickly repays the effort of prescribing correctly.
How often you give a medicine will depend on the potency you use, the type of illness, and the age of the patient.
As a general rule, low potencies of 6x, or 3c, to 12c are used for acute complaints, such as colds, attacks of
vomiting, wounds, and so on. Medium potencies of 30c are used in more established conditions such as recurrent
migraines or entrenched period pain. Higher potencies, of 200c and above, are used in deeper constitutional
treatment, and are best left to experienced prescribers.

A normal dose of any liquid is about 6 drops, usually taken under the tongue, but the remedy can be rubbed into
the chest in cases where opening the mouth is difficult. For frequent dosing, such as with a child at night, put half a
capful, or about 20 drops, in I cm of water in a glass, and give by clean eye dropper.
Generally, a dose is given every 2-3 hours during the day. It can also be given at night if the patient is awake.
Tablets are placed under the tongue and allowed to dissolve. The usual dose is 2
tablets for adults, I for children.
Pilules are small, round tablets, often used in homeopathic kits because they can be packed into space-saving bottles. The usual dose is 4 pilules for an adult, 2 pilules for a child.

Like tablets, they are placed under the tongue and allowed to dissolve, or can be chewed if preferred.
Oral sprays are a recent introduction to the homeopathic market, and have proved to be very convenient. The usual
dose is 4 sprays for an adult, 2 for a child.
For the low potencies of 6x, or 3-12c, one dose generally can be given every few hours until the patient improves
or until a change occurs. If there is no change after one or two weeks, especially in acute illnesses, the remedy has
probably failed and a new remedy should be chosen. Higher potencies are given less often. As a general rule, the
30c potency is given once a day, to adults and children, for several days. It is used most often in longer term
disorders, such as arthritis or constipation, although it is sometimes given once a day for several weeks. For
entrenched conditions, the 200c potency may be given once a week or once a month. Higher potencies, such as
IM, are given about once a month for constitutional problems.
Infants and children respond more quickly to remedies than do adults, although their symptoms are also liable to
change more quickly, so they need to be watched closely. Particularly in infants, the results from a single dose can
show within hours even minutes so the remedy can sometimes be given less often, such as morning and evening.
Remedy Reactions
After giving a well-chosen remedy for a number of doses, one of three things can happen.
The symptoms persist
If given for three to six doses in an acute illness, or for several weeks in a more long-standing illness, and there is
no improvement, the remedy has failed. The similimum was not chosen. A new remedy should be selected.
The symptoms improve
The remedy has succeeded, and dosage should be stopped. Further dosage should begin only when improvement

The symptoms aggravate (worsen)
The remedy may be correct, but is stimulating a response. Dosage should be stopped. A marked improvement can
be expected when the aggravation subsides. Further dosage should begin only when improvement stops, usually at
a higher potency than the first remedy. If the aggravation continues, professional advice should be sought.
Any illness that fails to improve after the administration of apparently correct remedies should always receive
professional assessment.

Some more useful herbal plants

 Boerhavia diffusa (Punarnava)
Parts used - Root and leaves
Uses – The root and leaves of Punarnava is used in the form of juice
and decoction to treat anaemia, oedema, internal abscess, calculi,
eye diseases, oedema during pregnancy, haemoptysis, for inducing
sleep, fever, rheumatic ailments, difficult labour, vaginal pain and
as rejuvinative.
1. Paste of punarnava, sunthi (zingiber officinale) and mustaka
(Cyperus rotundus) should be taken in dose of 10gm with
milk 640ml (CS.Ci.12.23)
2. Punarnava, guduci (Tinospora cordifolia) and guggulu
(Commiphora mukul) pounded in equal quantity alleviates
oedema, abdominal distension, (5-10 gms)(HS.3.25.14)
Eye diseases
Punarnava root powder or the paste removes itching, when
taken with milk, honey, ghee respectively,(5-10 gms)
As Rasayana
As a rejuvinative therapy, paste of fresh punarnava 20gm,
with milk continually more than a month (AH.U.39.155).
. Boswellia serrata (Sallaki)
Parts used – Bark, gum-resin
Uses – The bark and gum-resin of Sallaki is used to treat asthma,
dysentery, ulcer, haemorrhoid, skin diseases, fever, convulsions,
dysentery, , bronchitis, asthma, cough, stomatitis, syphilitic
diseases, chronic laryngitis, jaundice and arthritis.

The exudates of sallaki mixed with sugar and honey should
be applied over to eyes in conjunctivitis (SS.U.10.7)
Joint pain
Powder of the sallaki mixed (60 gms) with coconut oil and
made into a paste is applied externally to relieve pain (LHT)
. Buchanania lanzan (Priyala )
Parts used – Seed kernel, bark
Uses – The seed kernel and bark of Priyala is used in the form of
decoction to treat intrinsic haemorrhage, diarrhoea with blood and
as tonic.
As tonic
Grown up child who has left the breast-milk should be given
sweet bolus prepared of priyala (kernels),
madhuka,(Glycyrrhiza glabra) honey, parched paddy and
sugar candy. It acts as saturating and tonic (AH.U.139)
Kernels of the priyala made into a powder and used with milk
as an aphrodisiac, in case of fever and burning sensation.
powder of the bark mixed with honey is useful in dysentery
with blood.
 Butea monosperma ( Palasa )
Parts used – Root, leaves, petioles, flowers, seeds and exudate.
Uses – The Root, leaves, petioles, flowers, seeds and exudate in the
form of juice and powder to treat fever, diarrhoea, intrinsic
haemorrhage, worms, colic, cough, filaria, eye diseases, scorpionsting,
as contraceptive and as rejuinative.
1. Decoction of palasa seed or paste of the same with ricewater
should be taken (40-60 ml)(SS.U.54.25)
2. Decoction of palasa seeds mixed with honey or paste of the
same with buttermilk should be taken. It destroys worms
(40-60 ml) (VM.7.7; BP.Ci.7.21)

1. Flowers of palasa should be rubbed with honey and used as
collyrium (SS.U.10.9)
2. Exudate of palasa or sallaki (Boswellia serrata) mixed with
sugar and honey should be used as collyrium (SS.U.10.7)
.Caesalpinia bonduc (Latakaranja)
Parts used – Seed
Uses – The seeds of Latakaranja is used in the form of powder and
paste to treat pain , indigestion, dysentery, piles, worms, cough,
diabetes and skin diseases.
Colic pain / abdominal distention /Gulma
Decoction of latakaranaja, sunthi (zingiber officinale) and
rasna (Alpinia galanga) in 4, 2 and 6 parts respectively
alleviates, abdominal distention, hardness of bowels, and colic
 Cassia digyna (Grtakaranja)
parts used: root
useful in wound healing, piles, worms, skin diseases and diabetes.
Cassia absus (Arnya kulatha)
 Cassia fistula (Aragvadha )
Parts used – Fruit-pulp, root-bark and leaves
Uses – The fruit-pulp, root-bark and leaves of Aragvadha is used in
the form of fruit-pulp, decoction to treat fever, jaundice, diabetes,
skin diseases, wound, rheumatic ailments, erysipelas, wound due
to accident,.
Aragvadha, in the dose of 40gm, should be taken with juice of
sugarcane, vidari (ipomoea digitata) (AH.Ci.16.41)
Skin diseases (Kustha)
1. Leaves of aragvadha, kakamaci (Solanum nigrum) and karanja
(Pongamia pinnata) are pounded with buttermilk and applied as
anointment after smearing with oil the part affected with skin
diseases (20-30 gms) (CS.Su.3.17)

2. Ghee is cooked with root (bark) of aragvadha and taken with
decoction of khadira (acacia catechu). (AH.Ci.19.13). The
decoction of the bark is used internally and externally in skin
diseases. (40-60 ml)
3. Leaves of aragvadha are pounded with sour gruel and applied on
the part in case of ring worm and skin diseases (10-15 gms)
(VM.49.9;also BS.kustha63)
 Cassia senna (Svarnapatri )
Parts used – Leaves
Uses – The leaves of Svarnapatri are used to treat constipation,
abdominal diseases, leprosy, skin diseases, leucoderma,
splenomegaly, hepatopathy, jaundice, helminthiasis, dyspepsia,
cough, bronchitis, anaemia, tumour.
 Cassia tora (Cakramarda)
Parts used – Seed, root, leaf
Uses- the seed, root and leaf of Cakramarda are used in the form of
paste and oil to treat skin diseases, rheumatic ailments.
Skin diseases (Kustha)
Cakramarda, vidanga (Embelia ribes), haridra (curcuma
longa), daruharidra (Coscinium fenestratum) aragvadha
(cassia fistula) and kustha (sassurea lappa) –as a paste, this
combination is excellent for eradicating skin diseases (10-15
gms) (CS.Ci.7.161)
Rheumatic ailments (Vatavyadhi)
Vegetable or other dietary preparation of cakramarda leaves
alleviates rheumatic ailments (SB.4.461)
 Catharanthus roseus
Parts used – Whole plant
Uses – The whole plant of Sadampuspa is used to
treat diabetes, menorrhagia, leukemia and stomach-ache

Catunargam spinosa (Madana)
Parts used – Fruits, bark
Uses – The fruit and bark of Madana is used to treat fever,
diarrhoea, dysentery, bruises, cuts, pain, sprain, inflammation,
gout, helminthiasis, leprosy, skin diseases, wound, ulcer, tumour,
amenorrhoea, dysmenorrhoea, cough, asthma, bronchitis,
flatulence, colic and constipation.
For emesis
Fruits of madana is used as one of the best emetic drug
particularly useful in fever, abdominal distention, and skin
diseases of kapha predominant (CS.KA.1., Ah.Ka.1.)
 Celastrus paniculatus (Jyotismati)
Parts used – Leaf, seed and oil
Uses – The leaf and seed of Jyotismati is used in the form of powder
and oil to treat udara roga, wound, sidhma, drowsiness in fever and
Skin diseases (eczema /Sidhma)
Jyotismati oil processed with water of apamarga-ksara
(Achyranthes aspera ) processed seven times. By massaging
it destroys eczema (AH.Ci.19.75)
Japa (hibiscus rosa-sinensis ) flowers with sour gruel and fried
jyotismati leaves, by intake, induce menstruation (CD.62.25)
 Centella asiatica ( Mandukaparni)
Parts used – Whole plant
Uses – The whole plant of Mandukaparni is used in the form of juice
to treat cough, consumption, diseases of voice, insanity, as intellect
promoting, rejuvinatuve, boils, chronic coryza, and jaundice.

As intellect-promoting Rasayana
Juice of mandhukaparni, is used with milk. This is life-giving,
destroys diseases and promoters of strength, digestive power,
complexion and voice. (CS.Ci.1.3.30-31)
Regularly intake of mandukarparni fried in ghee for a month
keeping on non-cereal acts as rejuvinative (AH.U.36.165)
Local application of the juice of mandukaparni destroys boils
Juice of mandukaparni mixed with honey, haridra (curcuma longa),
amalaki(Phyllanthus emblica) or milk and taken in morning is
wholesome for those suffering from jaundice (VD.10.2)
 Chlorophytum borivilianum (Sveta Musali )
Parts used – Root
Used – The root of Musali is used in the form of powder to treat
freckles, deafness and as aphrodisiac.
Refer Musali, Curculigo orchioides
. Citrullus colocynthis (Indravaruni)
Parts used – Root and fruits
Uses – The root and fruits of Indravaruni is used in the form of
powder to treat jaundice, for cleansing wound, for extraction of
foreign body, scrotal enlargement, warts, alopecia, greying of hair,
arthritis, amenorrhoea and for inducing abortion, for inducing
vaginal secretion and insanity.
In jaundice, root of indravaruni made into powder and
mixed with jaggery is useful (SS.U.44.30)
The root of indravaruni should be mixed with pippali
(piper longum) and jaggery and taken in the dose of
10gm. It alleviates arthritis (BP.Ci.24.259)
. Cochlospermum religiosum
Parts used – Leaves, flowers and gum
Uses – The leaves, flowers and gum of Girisalmalika is used to
treat cough, diarrhoea, dysentery, pharyngitis, gonorrhoea,
syphilis and trachoma.
 Coleus forskohii (Gandera)
may be compared to uses of Coleus vettiveroides/which is
Parts used – Whole plant
Uses – The whole plant of Valakah is used to treat dyspepsia,
indigestion, dysentery, vomiting, thirst fever, dermatitis, ulcer and
bleeding diseases.
Paediatric disorders
Water processed with hribera and sunthi (zingiber officinale)
should be given to drink (CS.Ci.19.22) in Paediatric disorders
like diarrhoea, thirst, vomiting and fever in children Hribera
mixed with sugar and honey and taken with rice-water
 Curculigo orchioides (Musali )
Part used – Tuberous root
Uses – The tuberous root of musali is used in the form of powder
and decoction to treat retention of urine, as rejuvinative and as
As Rasayana
Satavari(asparagus racemosus), mundi(Sphaeranthus indicus ),
guduci (Tinospora cordifolia), hastikarnapalasa (Butea
monosperma) and musali all in equal parts are powdered. It is
mixed with ghee or honey and taken. It acts as rejuvinative and
promotes body tissues and strength (10-15 gms) (BP.Ci.73.11-
AS aphrodisiac
Regular use of the powder of krsna musali (talamuli) mixed
with ghee acts as aphrodiasiac (10-15 gms) (VV.4.8)
 Cyperus rotundus (Mustaka)
Parts used – Rhizomes
Uses – The rhizomes of Mustaka is used in the form of powder and
decoction to treat fever, diarrhoea, erysipelas, rheumatic ailments,
alcoholism, loose teeth, cough, vomiting, thirst, epilepsy, wound
due to accident and eye diseases
Water boiled with musta, parpata (Fumaria indica ), usira
(Vetiveria zizanioides ), candana, (Santalum album)
balaka(Coleus vettiveroides ) , and sunthi (zingiber officinalis)
and cooled should be given to improve digestion and to pacify
thirst and fever (CS.Ci.3.145)
Musta rhizomes (60 gms) should be boiled in milk with three
times reduces to milk its intake checks diarrhoea with mucus and
pain (10-15 gms) (SS.U.40.47; AH.Ci.9.39,)
Arthritis (Vatarakta)
In kapha predominant arthritis decoction of musta, draksa
(Vitis vinifera) and haridra (curcuma longa) mixed with honey
should be taken. (AH.Ci.22.14)
Root of musta pounded finely with cows ghee is applied as
paste on the wound (5-10 gms) (Cd.44.53) to promote quick
 Decalepis hamiltonii (Sveta sariva)
Part used – Root
Uses – The root of Sariva is used in the form of powder and
infusion to treat wound, bronchial asthma, fever, intrinsic
haemorrhage, kushtha, erysipelas, poisoning, paediatric
rejuvinative/rasayana and during pregnancy.
Refer Hemidesmus indicus

 Eclipta prostrata (Bhrngaraja )
Parts used – Whole plant, seed
Uses – The whole plant and seeds of Bhrngaraja is used in the form
of oil, powder and juice to treat filariasis, boils, wound, headache,
giddyness, lack of vision, indigestion, enlargement of liver and
spleen, jaundice, pain in the abdomen, cough, skin diseases, skin
diseases and fever.
Greying of hairs
Oil 160ml is cooked with the juice of bhrngaraja and milk 1.28
litres along with the paste of madhuka (Glycyrrhiza glabra )
40gm. This is used ad snuff and applied on head to prevent
greying of hairs (CS.Ci.26.267)
Rejuvinative / rasayana
Intake of powder containing bhrngaraja leaves, black
sesamum, amalaka (Phyllanthus emblica) and sugar in equal
quantity acts as rejuvinative/ rasayana (10-15 gms)
 Embelia ribes (Vidanga)
Parts used – Fruits and root
Uses – The fruits and root of Vidanga is used in the form of powder
and paste to treat worms, heart-diseases, skin diseases, pollution of
earth, headache, jaundice, poisoning and as rejuvinative.
1. Vidanga excels as anthelmintic and is used in food and
drinks, bath, fumigation and anointment. (CS.Ci.7.159)
2.Warm decoction of vidanga and aragvadha (cassia fistula)
should be given to those suffering from worms (3\40-60 ml)
Powder of vidanga, triphala (Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia
chebula, Terminalia bellerica) and pippali (piper longum)
taken with honey destroys skin diseases, worms, diabetes,
sinus and fistula-in-ano (10-15 gms) (SSR.12.33)

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